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Harding F.J., Surdo S., Delalat B., Cozzi C., [...] Voelcker, N.H., Barillaro, G. Ordered Silicon Pillar Arrays Prepared by Electrochemical Micromachining: Substrates for High-Efficiency Cell Transfection. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, 8, 29197

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Ordered arrays of silicon nano- to microscale pillars are used to enable biomolecular trafficking into primary human cells, consistently demonstrating high transfection efficiency can be achieved with broader and taller pillars than reported to date. Cell morphology on the pillar arrays is often strikingly elongated. Investigation of the cellular interaction with the pillar reveals that cells are suspended on pillar tips and do not interact with the substrate between the pillars. Although cells remain suspended on pillar tips, acute local deformation of the cell membrane was noted, allowing pillar tips to penetrate the cell interior, while retaining cell viability.