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F. Carrara, F. Falchi, R. Caldelli, G. Amato, R. Becarelli: "Adversarial image detection in deep neural networks", Multimedia Tools and Applications, 1-21

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Deep neural networks are more and more pervading many computer vision applications and in particular image classification. Notwithstanding that, recent works have demonstrated that it is quite easy to create adversarial examples, i.e., images malevolently modified to cause deep neural networks to fail. Such images contain changes unnoticeable to the human eye but sufficient to mislead the network. This represents a serious threat for machine learning methods. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of the representations learned by the fooled neural network, analyzing the activations of its hidden layers. Specifically, we tested scoring approaches used for kNN classification, in order to distinguish between correctly classified authentic images and adversarial examples. These scores are obtained searching only between the very same images used for training the network. The results show that hidden layers activations can be used to reveal incorrect classifications caused by adversarial attacks.

Keywords: Adversarial images detection, Deep convolutional neural network, Machine learning security