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M. Bianchi et al., "Tactile slip and hand displacement: Bending hand motion with tactile illusions," 2017 IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC), Munich, 2017, pp. 96-100

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Touch provides an important cue to perceive the physical properties of the external objects. Recent studies showed that tactile sensation also contributes to our sense of hand position and displacement in perceptual tasks. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, sliding our hand over a stationary surface, tactile motion may provide a feedback for guiding hand trajectory. We asked participants to touch a plate having parallel ridges at different orientations and to perform a self-paced, straight movement of the hand. In our daily-life experience, tactile slip motion is equal and opposite to hand motion. Here, we used a well-established perceptual illusion to dissociate, in a controlled manner, the two motion estimates. According to previous studies, this stimulus produces a bias in the perceived direction of tactile motion, predicted by tactile flow model. We showed a systematic deviation in the movement of the hand towards a direction opposite to the one predicted by tactile flow, supporting the hypothesis that touch contributes to motor control of the hand. We suggested a model where the perceived hand motion is equal to a weighted sum of the estimate from classical proprioceptive cues (e.g., from musculoskeletal system) and the estimate from tactile slip.