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S. Terranova, F. Costa, G. Manara, and S. Genovesi: “Three-Dimensional Chipless RFID Tags: Fabrication through Additive Manufacturing”, MDPI Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4740;

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A new class of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags, namely the three-dimensional (3D)-printed chipless RFID one, is proposed, and their performance is assessed. These tags can be realized by low-cost materials, inexpensive manufacturing processes and can be mounted on metallic surfaces. The tag consists of a solid dielectric cylinder, which externally appears as homogeneous. However, the information is hidden in the inner structure of the object, where voids are created to encrypt information in the object. The proposed chipless tag represents a promising solution for anti-counterfeiting or security applications, since it avoids an unwanted eavesdropping during the reading process or information retrieval from a visual inspection that may affect other chipless systems. The adopted data-encoding algorithm does not rely on On–Off or amplitude schemes that are commonly adopted in the chipless RFID implementations but it is based on the maximization of available states or the maximization of non-overlapping regions of uncertainty. The performance of such class of chipless RFID tags are finally assessed by measurements on real prototypes.