Foto 7

P. Nannipieri, S. Di Matteo, L. Zulberti, F. Albicocchi, S. Saponara and L. Fanucci, "A RISC-V Post Quantum Cryptography Instruction Set Extension for Number Theoretic Transform to Speed-Up CRYSTALS Algorithms," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 150798-150

Written by

In recent years, public-key cryptography has become a fundamental component of digital infrastructures. Such a scenario has to face a new and increasing threat, represented by quantum computers. It is well known that quantum computers in the next years will be able to run algorithms capable of breaking the security of currently widespread cryptographic schemes used for public-key cryptography. Post-quantum cryptography aims to define and execute algorithms on classical computer architectures, able to withstand attacks from quantum computers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is currently running a selection process to define one or more quantum-resistant public-key algorithms and lattice-based cryptographic constructions are considered one of the leading candidates. However, such algorithms require non-negligible computational resources to be executed. One viable solution is to accelerate them totally or partially in hardware, to alleviate the workload of the main processing unit. In this paper, we investigate a solution trading-off performance and complexity to execute the lattice-based algorithms CRYSTALS-Kyber and -Dilithium: we introduce a dedicated Post-Quantum Arithmetic Logic Unit, embedded directly in the pipeline of a RISC-V processor. This results in an almost negligible area overhead with a large impact on the algorithms speed-up and a consistent reduction in the energy required per single operation.

Keywords: NIST, Standards, Encryption, Quantum computing, Crystals, Lattices, Computers.