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Razzanelli, M., et al. (2016, June). A Visual-Haptic Display for Human and Autonomous Systems Integration. In International Workshop on Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems (pp. 64-80). Springer, Cham.

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This paper introduces a novel concept of visual-haptic display for situational awareness improvement for crowded and low altitude airspace situations. The visual augmentation display that constitutes of Virtual Fences delimiting no-fly zones, and a specific tri-dimensional highlight graphics that enhances visibility of other remotely piloted or autonomous agents, as well as conventional manned aircraft operating in the area is presented first. Then the Shared Control paradigm and the Haptic Force generation mechanism, based on a Proportional-Derivative-like controller applied to repulsive forces generated by the Virtual Fences and other UAVs are introduced and discussed. Simulations with 26 pilots were performed in a photo-realistic synthetic environment showing that the combined use of Visual-haptic feedback outperforms the Visual Display only in helping the pilot keeping a safe distance from no-fly zones and other vehicles.