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Mura D., Barbarossa M., Dinuzzi G., Grioli G., Caiti A., & Catalano M. (2018). A Soft Modular End Effector for Underwater Manipulation: A Gentle, Adaptable Grasp for the Ocean Depths. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine.

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Current underwater end-effector technology has limits in terms of finesse and versatility. Because of this, the execution of several underwater operations, such as archeological recovery and biological sampling, often still requires direct intervention by human operators, exposing them to the risks of working in a difficult environment. This article proposes the design and implementation of an underactuated and compliant underwater end effector that embodies grasp capabilities comparable to those of a scuba's real hand as well as the large grasping envelope of grippers.