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J. Lee, A. Ajoudani, E. Mingo, A. Rocchi, A. Settimi, M. Ferrati, A. Bicchi, N. Tsagarakis, D. G. Caldwell: " Upper-body Impedance Control with an Intuitive Stiffness Emulation for a Door Opening Task", 2014 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Human

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This paper presents a high degrees-of-freedom humanoid CoMan opens a door with an impedance control strategy performing multiple subtasks in a task-priority hierarchy.
The humanoid system is integrated with a visual perception, soft hands, and graphical user interface communicated with a pilot.
A online stiffness adoption method emulating desired behaviors is proposed so as to robustly and safely open the door, incorporating a local optimization.
A full scenario of opening task (approaching to the door and reaching, grasping, rotating and pulling the door handle) is demonstrated under semi-autonomous teleoperation.
The experimental results shows the effectiveness and efficacy of the proposed impedance control approach.
Throughout the door opening, no excessive interaction forces are occured less than 32% of that of position controlled situation.